The pancreas is a part of the gastrointestinal tract and, at the same time, a mixed secretion gland. It responds to food entering the human digestive system, producing enzymes that are secreted in the duodenum and help to break down food in the intestines. On the other hand, the gland produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, which are released into the bloodstream and maintain normal blood glucose levels.
What is pancreatitis and its forms
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas, in which the gland tissue becomes inflamed, interrupting the process of production and entry of the necessary enzymes into the intestine. The inflamed gland increases in size, its internal ducts narrow, which does not allow digestive juices to pass into the duodenum. The enzymes that remain in the gland begin, as it were, to break down the gland itself, which leads to sad consequences.
It is an acute form of pancreatitis, which is caused by a violation of diet or inflammatory diseases in the body and does not last long with proper treatment. If the action of irritating factors is prolonged or frequent, chronic pancreatitis occurs, which can develop after an acute process.
A comprehensive approach to the treatment of pancreatitis is used, and a special diet plays an important role, without which the effectiveness of treatment is extremely low.
Principles of diet for pancreatitis
The dietary principles for acute pancreatitis are that the first 3 days are generally recommended to observe hunger. During this time, the necessary nutrition is provided by intravenous infusion without intestinal irritation. The foods that enter the intestine always lead to an increase in the production of digestive enzymes and, in acute inflammation, it is important to reduce this activity to the maximum, after a few days the diet is gradually expanded. At the beginning, only ordinary water, sometimes mineral water is allowed without gas, better weak alkaline tea.
So, for chronic pancreatitis from day 3, and for acute pancreatitis after day 5, the following positions are used:
- the frequency of nutrition at least 5 times a day for uniform release of enzymes without pronounced load and reduction of inflammation;
- the amount of fats and carbohydrates decreases as much as possible in the direction of an increase in protein products;
- the volume of food at a time does not exceed 150-200 ml;
- use hot food 20-60 degrees in minced or mashed form;
- chew your food well and don't be in a hurry;
- do not drink during meals, limit salt to 4-5 grams per day;
- excludes foods that cause flatulence;
- for the purpose of saving chemicals, you should not use hot spices and seasonings;
- Use only cooked or roasted foods, without using fried, smoked or canned ingredients.
Characteristics of the diet for pancreatitis
It is important to remember that the diet for pancreatic pancreatitis must be observed constantly, otherwise the body will react with repeated inflammation and the consequences will be negative. In acute pancreatitis, the condition is very serious and death is not excluded.
In the context of an increase in the proportion of protein products in the diet, most of them should be animals in the form of turkey, chicken or young meat. Carbohydrates should be a little more than 300 grams per day with the limitation of common sugar or jelly, fats in a minimal amount, protein products make up more than half of the diet.
Foods allowed and prohibited in the diet for gastric pancreatitis
There are many foods allowed in the diet for gastric pancreatitis, so the diet can be made as varied as possible:
- boiled or roasted rabbit, calf and poultry (lean), cooked tongue;
- lean fish, such as hake or pollack, cooked, roasted or in the form of a souffle;
- cereals are different, preferably rice or oatmeal as part of cereals, soups or casseroles;
- bread after drying in the oven, baked cookies, baked pasta;
- milk and diluted low-fat dairy products in the form of addition to the main products or curd casserole, diet cheese and skimmed milk curd;
- boiled or roasted vegetables - potatoes and pumpkin, beets or carrots, fresh pumpkin;
- eggs (protein only) in omelets or casseroles, vegetable oil in moderation;
- ripe fruits without sugar or baked in the oven, gelatine or red fruit puree;
- weak drinks, diluted juices, drinks with rosehip fruit.
The following foods are prohibited in a diet for exacerbated pancreatitis:
- Fried or grilled meat, all offal; lamb or goose meat, bacon and smoked meat, canned stew;
- canned seafood dishes, rich fish stock or canned food;
- dishes cooked with vegetables and rich broths;
- fresh bread, pastry, fried pies;
- sour cream with natural fat, cream, large amounts of unsweetened milk;
- Garlic, mushrooms, radish are strictly prohibited (restricting turnips and fresh vegetables);
- egg yolks and fresh natural butter;
- lots of fresh sweet fruits, cabbage and sorrel;
- coffee, strong tea, concentrated lemonades and any carbonated drinks, alcohol of any content or energy;
- ice cream, buttercream cakes, chocolate, any cakes;
- hot spices, marinades, sausages and smoked meats.
Diet contraindications for pancreatitis
Taking into account the peculiarities of the diet for gastric pancreatitis, there are contraindications.
They concern patients with kidney disease or protein metabolism:
- with pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis with process decompensation;
- patients with urolithiasis;
- at acute or chronic renal failure;
- in case of gout and impaired exchange of purine bases;
- in the presence of multiple myeloma;
- with hormonal imbalance or thyroid problems;
- with background precancerous diseases, as excess protein is dangerous for malignancy;
- with severe obesity or diabetes mellitus, especially with diabetic nephropathy, ie kidney injury.
Due to the increase in the amount of protein products in the diet, the load on the kidneys increases and in the presence of chronic diseases, their work is interrupted.
Diet for pancreatitis: menu of the week
Consider an example of a week-long diet menu with acute or chronic pancreatitis of the pancreas.
- Breakfast.Porridge in ground buckwheat water, boiled chicken breast. Curd pudding, weak tea.
- Lunch.Fruit puree, beaten in a blender, biscuit biscuits.
- Lunch.Puree soup of rice groats, steamed veal chops, apricot jam.
- Snack.Carrot casserole with tea.
- Dinner.Fish paste with oats. Apple's Jam.
- Before going to sleep.Currant juice.
- Breakfast.Mashed potato with mashed meat. Cookies, fruit tea.
- Lunch.Protein omelet, carrot puree.
- Lunch.Buckwheat soup with rabbit meatballs. Zucchini casserole, weak tea.
- Snack.Pure beet salad, fruit juice with breadcrumbs.
- Dinner.Steamed turkey chops with mashed rice porridge. Kissel of apples.
- Before going to sleep.Fruit drink with rosehips.
- Breakfast.Oatmeal without sugar. Carrot casserole with tea.
- Lunch.Baked apples with croutons and apricot juice.
- Lunch.Hake soup, mashed potatoes with sour cream. Pear jelly with croutons.
- Snack.Zucchini casserole with tea and biscuits.
- Dinner.Steamed rabbit chops with mashed buckwheat porridge. Gooseberry compote.
- Before going to sleep.A glass of kefir.
- Breakfast.Rice pudding with cooked meat. Tea with cookies.
- Lunch.Beet salad boiled with yogurt and cookies.
- Lunch.Soup in chicken broth with buckwheat. Vegetable meatballs, fruit jelly.
- Snack.Cottage cheese with skimmed cream, tea with marshmallows.
- Dinner.Vegetable casserole with pollock. Compote of dried fruits.
- Before going to sleep.Fruit drink with apple.
- Breakfast.Chopped oatmeal with steamed meat cutlets. Fruit pudding tea.
- Lunch.Steamed fish meatballs, apple jam.
- Lunch.Rabbit soup with cooked meat. Pumpkin casserole with sour cream, unsweetened tea.
- Snack.Protein omelet with apple juice.
- Dinner.Turkey roll and vegetable stew. Tea with cookies.
- Before going to sleep.Low-fat fermented cooked milk.
- Breakfast.Cooked pasta with chicken pate. Sugar-free tea.
- Lunch.Pumpkin porridge with unsweetened yogurt.
- Lunch.Puree soup of pumpkin and veal. Zucchini stew and cranberry jam.
- Snack.Apple puree, a cup of kefir.
- Dinner.Steamed fish cakes with oats. Tea with cookies.
- Before going to sleep.Apricot jam.
- Breakfast.Casserole with meat and vegetables. Ryazhenka with cookies.
- Lunch.Curd pudding and fruit puree.
- Lunch.Pumpkin and potato puree soup. Chicken meatballs with oats. Fresh fruit compote.
- Snack.Carrot pudding with unsweetened tea.
- Dinner.Hake and zucchini casserole. Apple jam.
- Before going to sleep.Fresh fermented milk.
When preparing the menu and preparing the food, remember that the food must be fresh and the methods of preparation must be boiled or roasted. It is undesirable to combine different proteins at the same time, and small portions are recommended to reduce the burden on the pancreas.
Diet for pancreatitis: nutritionist reviews
Nutritionists' assessments of the pancreatitis diet are as follows. Its main components aim to reduce the gland's nutritional load and decrease the production of digestive juice, which favors inflammation. In addition to these effects, this diet prevents diseases of the liver and biliary tract, as it normalizes the frequency of bile secretion to the intestine. However, in a context of restrictions, one must remember about a sufficient amount of vitamins in the diet to avoid vitamin deficiency.
With the lack of proper enzymes in the patient's body, the absorption of nutrients from food decreases. To correct the absorption of nutrients, drugs containing the necessary enzymes are used in granular or encapsulated forms. Special medicine capsules promote the action of enzymes at a specific location in the digestive system for maximum effect.
In acute pancreatitis, maximum cutting of food is important, but in chronic pancreatitis, to maintain the physiological work of the digestive tract, food should not be finely chopped or cleaned of ready-made food, although heat treatment should be done withoutfry or grill. The more balanced the diet, the less likely adverse results will be. In acute pancreatitis, the diet should be followed for at least 2-3 months; in chronic disease, it is desirable for life.